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Current Research
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The Research Committee shares current applied and academic research that can impact our learning and performance professionals today.

For previously published research and resources, please view the Curated Research webpage.

Adapting to changing work environments

Featured Interview: Dr. Robin Yap's interview with Lorianne Weston, Executive Director of I4PL, on changing workplace trends

Maximize learning impact

posted September 14 2020

Mobile Learning: Why Now? 

The article highlights the role of mobile learning from the perspective of the ADDIE model - https://learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/mobile-learning-why-now

Five Strategies to Maximize And Measure the Impact of Training Program -  https://trainingindustry.com/articles/measurement-and-analytics/5-strategies-to-maximize-and-measure-the-impact-of-training-programs-spon-eidesign/

Working with SMEs

posted August 7 2020

by Melissa Pound

Subject Matter Experts or SMEs are critical to instructional design—but working with them can be a challenge. No wonder one blogger described them as “your ultimate frenemy” (Working With Subject Matter Experts: The Ultimate Guide). What can research tell us to help untangle this knotty relationship?

Grasping the Unknown

If you’re an instructional designer working with a SME, your goal is to get information. But you need the right information—extraneous details and inaccuracies won’t help you build required learning activities. Unfortunately, the good stuff is often the hardest to get; it might include tacit knowledge that is difficult for a SME to articulate, or complex, unfamiliar concepts that are inherently hard to explain.

Templates, storyboards, and design documents can all help keep your interactions focused on project goals. However, these tools in themselves are not always sufficient to ensure that a SME’s knowledge is being appropriately transferred and translated through the design process. 

Extensive research on concept mapping has found it to be an effective learning tool, possibly because it allows learners to reduce cognitive load and focus on essential links between concepts (Schroeder et al, 2018). Keppell (2000, 2001) piloted the use of concept mapping with SMEs, as one aspect of an iterative process of parsing and validating shared knowledge. The mapping seemed to make SME interviews easier by helping the instructional designer organize information and providing a framework to build on, as well as demonstrating understanding to the SME and making it easier to pinpoint any errors.

There are many tools that can be used for concept mapping, from the SmartArt in MS Word to specialized apps and services. A few examples include:

Overclaiming

Another common challenge is the SME who won’t engage—or who engages a little too much! Both patterns, in some cases, might be linked to the phenomena of overclaiming.

As I’m using it here, overclaiming is the tendency for people to overestimate their own contributions to a situation or project. Some of the earliest research on overclaiming found that married couples would overclaim responsibility even for negative contributions such as creating mess in the house (Ross & Sicoly, 1979). More recent research by Julianna Schroeder (2017) suggests that overclaiming increases in larger groups (i.e. members of a larger group will tend to claim higher levels of individual responsibility), particularly for group members who are more indirectly involved.

What does all of this have to do with difficult SMEs? Often SMEs are simply busy or perhaps not invested in a particular L&D project. But I’ve also seen people who avoid training development despite every reason to be engaged--passion for the training topic, direct impacts on their team, support from management. In this situation, consider whether your SME might be overestimating their role in the project and how much effort will be required. Similarly, a SME may put a lot of work into a set of PowerPoint slides and feel that a course is done, not realizing the additional steps involved in effective instructional design.

Schroeder suggests that reducing role ambiguity is one key to reducing overclaiming and the conflict or frustration that can come with it. Early clarification of roles as part of a project start-up meeting may go a long way to facilitating positive, productive working relationships. Although time-poor SMEs will not appreciate being inundated with detail, it may be helpful to refer to I4PL’s Competencies for Performance and Learning Professionals or other situation-specific frameworks. In an academic context, Halupa (2018) recommends creating formal policies and course development guides to outline instructional designers’ roles, supplemented with a “warm, cordial” approach towards faculty.

In addition to being cordial, try to be as concrete as possible. Work with SMEs and other team members to assign specific tasks that are consistent with agreed-on roles. Use scheduled check-in points to recognize contributions and maintain accountability for getting things done.    

What’s Next?

As the drive towards remote work increases, and more in-person training gets brought online, communication with SMEs will continue to evolve. Online tools like concept-mapping apps may become more critical. Clarifying responsibilities and making contributions visible without regular in-person contact might require stretching our rapport-building muscles over Zoom.

It should also be said that there are many rewards to working with SMEs. As a technical writer and editor, and more recently on training projects, I’ve been lucky to encounter deep thinkers, lively conversationalists, and skilled educators. Although deadlines and standards will always lurk in the background, don’t forget to recognize and appreciate SMEs as people. Especially now, when we are all dealing with stress and social distancing, it can be useful to take a break to simply listen, learn, and enjoy.

Sources:

Halupa, C. (2019). Differentiation of roles: Instructional designers and faculty in the creation of online courses. International Journal of Higher Education, 8(1), 55-68. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1203205.pdf

Keppell, M. (2000). Principles at the heart of an instructional designer:subject matter expert interaction. ASCILITE 2000, Coffs Harbour, Australia. https://www.ascilite.org/conferences/coffs00/papers/mike_keppell.pdf

Keppell, M. (2001). Optimizing instructional designer-subject matter expert communication in the design and development of multimedia projects. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 12, 209-27.

Ross, M., & Sicoly, F. (1979). Egocentric biases in availability and attribution. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(3), 322.

Changing Times in Learning and Development

posted July 24, 2020

by Nidhi Jaitly

The way we think, learn, and act has changed enormously in the past couple of years. The change was slow, going at its own pace from classroom to blended to online education in both the corporate and educational sectors. Many were still believers that classroom learning was the best, and perhaps only way to impart education. In fact, before the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, many industries were not at all comfortable with adopting online learning. The reasons could have been budget, workforce bandwidth, acceptance from management, time commitment, return on investment, or anything which was preventing experimentation in the space of learning and technology.

Social distancing became prevalent due to the COVID-19 pandemic and pushed entire economies, including those of underdeveloped, developing and developed countries, to think creatively and to go virtual. Yes, virtual is the new normal now! This new world-shaping event has introduced us to a new era of human interaction. Learning does not know any geographical boundaries. Easy and affordable virtual systems and applications like Moodle, Google Suite, Kahoot, and Webex are making learning and education accessible to all.

With social and physical distancing, lockdowns and quarantines, millions of professionals, who are now working from home, are choosing to learn skills that will help them navigate the changing times. Distance education, which had often been a point of debate in past years, has now become the new norm. As L&D professionals, we are busier than ever transitioning learning from a non-digital to digital mode.

There are some formal and informal ways where Learning and Development have played a vital role in creating this new norm to meet the demands of changing times.

Virtual Acceptance: Many professional and educational institutions have now realized the power of the digital world through various eLearning platforms. They are introducing online skill-building courses and revamping their existing curricula, making them more user friendly. By setting up work from home policies for their staff, organizations are creating new learning paths for their teams. They are fostering an influential learning culture by constantly introducing virtual dialogue forums, and online classes with or without instructors. Online presentations on tools like Zoom and Skype and webinars through Microsoft Teams are encouraging thought exchange among people in a rapidly changing workplace.

Live Virtual Sessions: Experts and seasoned professionals have recognized the impact of physical distancing and its effect on emotional and mental well being. Quick tip open sessions and one-to-one counselling on LinkedIn Live to deal with the crisis have become a new buzz on social networking sites. Live sessions provide a real-time opportunity to ask questions, or to like or comment on the virtual session.

Online Conferences: I recently attended a virtual two-day Learning and Development Conference hosted on Crowdcast. I was surprised to see hundreds of people joining the conference from different parts of the world at the same time without any technical issues. The sessions were not a monologue, instead, they were highly interactive. Participants asked questions, co-facilitated, interacted with fellow participants, could leave comments, all at the same time.

Re-emergence of MOOCs: Massive Open Online Courses are a decade-old trend. But what I see today is increased popularity, credibility, and acceptance among professionals. Students and professionals proudly showcase completion badges on their professional networking pages. There are  many MOOC [https://www.mooc-list.com/] providers which are continuously enriching their curriculums to provide the latest learning content at subsidized rates to its subscribers

Online Schools: Have you ever thought of having the entire education system go online? There has always been a debate on the relevance of online education versus classroom education. But the COVID -19 pandemic has forced global experimentation with remote teaching. Teachers are finding new ways to impart knowledge through creative and engaging methodologies on virtual platforms. Schools are now working hard to revamp their course management systems to bring participative learning.

Conclusion

MOOCs, online schools and webinars through Webex already existed earlier but were not popular. Live virtual sessions through LinkedIn, virtual collaboration through Zoom and Microsoft Teams, and virtual conferences were in nascent stages of development. However, the current crisis forced these new forms of learning to explode in popularity. As a result, a chain of events has been set in motion that has made these forms of learning the new norm rather than just alternatives to traditional classroom learning.

References

(2020). What the Shift to Virtual Learning Could Mean for the Future of Higher Ed. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2020/03/what-the-shift-to-virtual-learning-could-mean-for-the-future-of-higher-ed

(2020). Corporate Learning and Development During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Retrieved from https://www.elearning-journal.com/en/2020/04/27/corporate-learning-covid-19/

(2020). 3 ways learning has become core to the new world of work. Retrieved from https://www.chieflearningofficer.com/2020/06/25/3-ways-learning-has-become-core-to-the-new-world-of-work/

Resilience During COVID 19How have you accessed your resilience?

Too often we associate resilience with extraordinary people while in reality, most of us are resilient and have the capacity to learn to be more so.

In the fall of 2019, a colleague and I were contracted to develop and deliver a series of learning opportunities on resilience. Our clients were experiencing significant stress in their workplaces and their leaders felt time building awareness and capacity to draw on their inner strengths would lower their stress levels and enhance their ability to work together.

At the core of our activities was an article by the American Psychological Association (APA), “The Road to Resilience”. This 4 page article defines resilience and looks at factors and strategies to strengthen and build it. For me, the most important message in the article is that “Resilience is not a trait that people either have or do not have. It involves behaviors, thoughts, and actions that can be learned and developed in anyone.”(footnote/link here)

Earlier this week, I went back and re-read the article with my COVID 19 eyes, thoughts and emotions. I found that the key messages had new meaning. I am more positive about my ability to go beyond coping, to reach creativity and joy in finding new ways of being. I know I am not alone. However, I am struggling with finding new ways to get through grief and to coach those who are grieving.

We need your help! I would like to share the APA article with you and ask you to share any examples of resilience you and/or your learning colleagues have experienced during the last 3-4 months. We attach the article in English and French below (website is in English only). Please enjoy and then send us your stories!

 

ICYMI - The Road to Resilience

American Psychological Association / https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience

Introduction

How do people deal with difficult events that change their lives? The death of a loved one, loss of a job, serious illness, terrorist attacks and other traumatic events: these are all examples of very challenging life experiences. Many people react to such circumstances with a flood of strong emotions and a sense of uncertainty.

Yet people generally adapt well over time to life-changing situations and stressful conditions. What enables them to do so? It involves resilience, an ongoing process that requires time and effort and engages people in taking a number of steps.

This brochure is intended to help readers with taking their own road to resilience. The information within describes resilience and some factors that affect how people deal with hardship. Much of the brochure focuses on developing and using a personal strategy for enhancing resilience.

What is Resilience?

Resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress — such as family and relationship problems, serious health problems or workplace and financial stressors. It means "bouncing back" from difficult experiences.

Research has shown that resilience is ordinary, not extraordinary. People commonly demonstrate resilience. One example is the response of many Americans to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and individuals' efforts to rebuild their lives.

Being resilient does not mean that a person doesn't experience difficulty or distress. Emotional pain and sadness are common in people who have suffered major adversity or trauma in their lives. In fact, the road to resilience is likely to involve considerable emotional distress.

Resilience is not a trait that people either have or do not have. It involves behaviors, thoughts and actions that can be learned and developed in anyone.

Resilience Factors and Strategies

A combination of factors contributes to resilience. Many studies show that the primary factor in resilience is having caring and supportive relationships within and outside the family. Relationships that create love and trust, provide role models and offer encouragement and reassurance help bolster a person's resilience.

Several additional factors are associated with resilience, including:

  • The capacity to make realistic plans and take steps to carry them out.
  • A positive view of yourself and confidence in your strengths and abilities.
  • Skills in communication and problem solving.
  • The capacity to manage strong feelings and impulses.

All of these are factors that people can develop in themselves.

Strategies For Building Resilience

Developing resilience is a personal journey. People do not all react the same to traumatic and stressful life events. An approach to building resilience that works for one person might not work for another. People use varying strategies.

Some variation may reflect cultural differences. A person's culture might have an impact on how he or she communicates feelings and deals with adversity — for example, whether and how a person connects with significant others, including extended family members and community resources. With growing cultural diversity, the public has greater access to a number of different approaches to building resilience.

Some or many of the ways to build resilience in the following pages may be appropriate to consider in developing your personal strategy.

10 Ways to Build Resilience

  • Make connections. Good relationships with close family members, friends or others are important. Accepting help and support from those who care about you and will listen to you strengthens resilience. Some people find that being active in civic groups, faith-based organizations, or other local groups provides social support and can help with reclaiming hope. Assisting others in their time of need also can benefit the helper.
  • Avoid seeing crises as insurmountable problems. You can't change the fact that highly stressful events happen, but you can change how you interpret and respond to these events. Try looking beyond the present to how future circumstances may be a little better. Note any subtle ways in which you might already feel somewhat better as you deal with difficult situations.
  • Accept that change is a part of living. Certain goals may no longer be attainable as a result of adverse situations. Accepting circumstances that cannot be changed can help you focus on circumstances that you can alter.
  • Move toward your goals. Develop some realistic goals. Do something regularly — even if it seems like a small accomplishment — that enables you to move toward your goals. Instead of focusing on tasks that seem unachievable, ask yourself, "What's one thing I know I can accomplish today that helps me move in the direction I want to go?"
  • Take decisive actions. Act on adverse situations as much as you can. Take decisive actions, rather than detaching completely from problems and stresses and wishing they would just go away.
  • Look for opportunities for self-discovery. People often learn something about themselves and may find that they have grown in some respect as a result of their struggle with loss. Many people who have experienced tragedies and hardship have reported better relationships, greater sense of strength even while feeling vulnerable, increased sense of self-worth, a more developed spirituality and heightened appreciation for life.
  • Nurture a positive view of yourself. Developing confidence in your ability to solve problems and trusting your instincts helps build resilience.
  • Keep things in perspective. Even when facing very painful events, try to consider the stressful situation in a broader context and keep a long-term perspective. Avoid blowing the event out of proportion.
  • Maintain a hopeful outlook. An optimistic outlook enables you to expect that good things will happen in your life. Try visualizing what you want, rather than worrying about what you fear.
  • Take care of yourself. Pay attention to your own needs and feelings. Engage in activities that you enjoy and find relaxing. Exercise regularly. Taking care of yourself helps to keep your mind and body primed to deal with situations that require resilience.
  • Additional ways of strengthening resilience may be helpful. For example, some people write about their deepest thoughts and feelings related to trauma or other stressful events in their life. Meditation and spiritual practices help some people build connections and restore hope.

The key is to identify ways that are likely to work well for you as part of your own personal strategy for fostering resilience.

Learning from Your Past

Focusing on past experiences and sources of personal strength can help you learn about what strategies for building resilience might work for you. By exploring answers to the following questions about yourself and your reactions to challenging life events, you may discover how you can respond effectively to difficult situations in your life.

Consider the following:

  • What kinds of events have been most stressful for me?
  • How have those events typically affected me?
  • Have I found it helpful to think of important people in my life when I am distressed?
  • To whom have I reached out for support in working through a traumatic or stressful experience?
  • What have I learned about myself and my interactions with others during difficult times?
  • Has it been helpful for me to assist someone else going through a similar experience?
  • Have I been able to overcome obstacles, and if so, how?
  • What has helped make me feel more hopeful about the future?

Staying Flexible

Resilience involves maintaining flexibility and balance in your life as you deal with stressful circumstances and traumatic events. This happens in several ways, including:

  • Letting yourself experience strong emotions, and also realizing when you may need to avoid experiencing them at times in order to continue functioning.
  • Stepping forward and taking action to deal with your problems and meet the demands of daily living, and also stepping back to rest and reenergize yourself.
  • Spending time with loved ones to gain support and encouragement, and also nurturing yourself.
  • Relying on others, and also relying on yourself.

Acknowledgments:

APA gratefully acknowledges the following contributors to this publication:

Lillian Comas-Diaz, PhD, Director, Transcultural Mental Health Institute, Washington, D.C.

Suniya S. Luthar, PhD, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York City, N.Y.

Salvatore R. Maddi, PhD, The Hardiness Institute, Inc., University of California at Irvine, Newport Beach, Calif.

H. Katherine (Kit) O'Neill, PhD, North Dakota State University and Knowlton, O'Neill and Associates, Fargo, N.D.

Karen W. Saakvitne, PhD, Traumatic Stress Institute/Center for Adult & Adolescent Psychotherapy, South Windsor, Conn.

Richard Glenn Tedeschi, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

American Psychological Association

APA, located in Washington, D.C., is the leading scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States. APA works to advance psychology as a science and profession and as a means of promoting health and human welfare.

 

Le parcours vers la résilience

American Psychological Association: https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience (en anglais)

Introduction

Comment les personnes s’y prennent-elles pour faire face aux événements difficiles qui changent leurs vies? Le décès d’un être cher, la perte d’un emploi, une maladie grave, des attaques terroristes, ce sont tous des exemples d’expériences de vie très éprouvantes et il existe d’autres événements traumatisants (en anglais) qui peuvent se présenter. Dans de telles circonstances, la réaction de nombreuses personnes consiste à éprouver une vague d’émotions fortes accompagnées d’un sentiment d’incertitude.

Pourtant, en général, avec le temps, les personnes parviennent à s’adapter adéquatement aux situations qui bouleversent la vie et aux conditions stressantes. Qu’est-ce qui leur permet d’y parvenir? Il faut faire appel à la résilience, un processus continu qui exige du temps et des efforts, et qui permet aux personnes de prendre un certain nombre de mesures.

La présente brochure a pour but d’aider les lecteurs à entamer leur propre parcours vers la résilience. Les renseignements dont il est question dans la présente brochure décrivent la résilience ainsi qu’un certain nombre de facteurs qui ont une incidence sur la façon dont les personnes traversent les périodes difficiles. La brochure porte en grande partie sur l’élaboration et l’utilisation d’une stratégie personnelle pour accroître la résilience.

En quoi consiste la résilience?

La résilience est le processus d’une adaptation adéquate face à l’adversité, au trauma, aux menaces ou aux sources significatives de stress (en anglais) – tel que des problèmes familiaux et relationnels, des préoccupations sérieuses en lien avec la santé, le travail (en anglais) et l’état financier. Il fait référence au fait de « remonter la pente » dans le cadre d’expériences difficiles.

Les travaux de recherche ont démontré que la résilience est un processus normal et non pas exceptionnel. Il arrive souvent que des personnes fassent preuve de résilience. On peut citer comme exemple la réaction de nombreux Américains aux attentats terroristes du 11 septembre 2001 ainsi que les efforts individuels pour rebâtir leur vie.

Faire preuve de résilience ne signifie pas ne pas ressentir la difficulté ou la détresse à laquelle une situation nous confronte. La douleur émotionnelle et la tristesse sont fréquentes chez les personnes qui ont supporté une adversité importante ou subi un grand traumatisme dans leur vie. D’ailleurs, le parcours vers la résilience pourrait occasionner une détresse émotionnelle considérable.

La résilience n’est pas une caractéristique qu’une personne possède ou non. Celle-ci fait intervenir des comportements, des pensées et des actions qui peuvent être cultivés et appliqués par qui que ce soit.

Facteurs et stratégies de résilience

Un ensemble de facteurs contribuent à la résilience. De nombreuses études montrent que le facteur le plus déterminant en matière de résilience ce sont les relations fondées sur l’amour et l’encouragement qu’on entretient à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur de la famille. Il s’agit de relations dans le cadre desquelles se manifestent l’amour et la confiance et qui fournissent des modèles de comportement, apportent de l’encouragement et de l’assurance et contribuent à stimuler la résilience d’une personne.

Plusieurs facteurs sont associés à la résilience, dont les suivants :

  • La capacité d’élaborer des plans réalistes et de prendre des mesures pour les mener à bien.
  • Une vision positive de soi-même et une confiance en ses forces et en ses habilités.
  • Des compétences en matière de communication et de résolution de problèmes.
  • La capacité de contenir des impulsions et des sentiments violents.

Ces facteurs sont tous des aspects que les personnes peuvent cultiver en elles.

Stratégies de renforcement de la résilience

L’amélioration de la résilience est un parcours personnel. Les personnes ne réagissent pas de la même façon face à des situations de vie traumatisantes et stressantes. Une approche pour renforcer la résilience qui fonctionne pour une personne pourrait ne pas fonctionner pour une autre. Les personnes ont recours à des stratégies différentes.

Certaines différences pourraient être attribuables à des différences culturelles. La culture à laquelle appartient une personne pourrait avoir une incidence sur la façon dont celle‑ci communique ses sentiments et fait face à l’adversité – par exemple, la possibilité qu’une personne établisse une relation avec un être cher et la façon dont celle-ci établit une telle relation, y compris avec les membres de la famille élargie et les ressources communautaires. Compte tenu d’une diversité culturelle de plus en plus grande, le public a un plus grand accès à un certain nombre d’approches différentes visant à renforcer la résilience.

Il pourrait être approprié de prendre en considération un certain nombre de façons de renforcer la résilience – ou beaucoup d’entre elles – dont il est question dans les pages suivantes dans le cadre de l’élaboration de votre stratégie personnelle.

Dix façons de bâtir sa résilience

  • Établir des liens. Il est important d’avoir de bonnes relations avec les membres de sa famille immédiate, les amis, entre autres. Accepter l’aide et le soutien de ceux qui vous aiment et vous écoutent renforce la résilience. Certaines personnes trouvent qu’être actifs auprès de groupes civiques, d’organismes confessionnels ou d’autres groupes locaux apporte un soutien social et peut contribuer à retrouver l’espoir. Venir en aide aux autres lorsqu’ils en ont besoin peut également être bénéfique pour ceux qui aident.
  • Éviter de considérer les crises comme étant des problèmes insurmontables. Vous ne pouvez rien au fait que des situations très stressantes surviennent, mais vous pouvez modifier la façon dont vous les interprétez et y réagissez. Essayer de porter votre regard au-delà du moment présent et d’examiner la manière dont les situations futures pourraient être légèrement meilleures. Remarquez les façons subtiles qui peuvent en quelque sorte vous faire sentir déjà mieux à mesure que vous faites face à des situations difficiles.
  • Acceptez que le changement fasse partie de la vie. Certains objectifs pourraient ne plus être réalisables à la suite de conditions défavorables. Accepter les circonstances qui ne peuvent pas être changées peut vous aider à vous concentrer sur ce que vous êtes en mesure de changer.
  • Progressez vers la réalisation de vos objectifs. Élaborez des objectifs réalistes. Faites régulièrement quelque chose – même si cela paraît comme une petite réalisation – qui vous permet de progresser vers la réalisation de vos objectifs. Au lieu de vous concentrer sur des tâches qui vous semblent irréalisables, posez-vous la question suivante : « Qu’est-ce que je suis certain de pouvoir faire aujourd’hui qui peut m’aider à progresser vers la direction que j’ai choisie? »
  • Prenez des mesures décisives. Dans la mesure du possible, réagissez dans les situations difficiles. Prenez des mesures décisives, au lieu de vous désensibiliser totalement aux problèmes et aux stress, en espérant qu’ils disparaîtront tout simplement.
  • Recherchez les occasions qui favorisent la découverte de soi. Souvent, les personnes apprennent des choses sur elles-mêmes et peuvent constater qu’elles ont grandi d’une certaine façon à la suite d’une perte qui les a fait souffrir. De nombreuses personnes qui ont été aux prises avec des tragédies et des difficultés ont fait état d’une amélioration de leurs relations, du sentiment d’avoir une plus grande force même lorsqu’elles se sentent vulnérables, d’un renforcement du sentiment d’estime de soi, d’une spiritualité plus développée et d’une plus grande appréciation de la vie.
  • Portez un regard positif sur vous-même. En augmentant la confiance dans votre capacité à régler les problèmes et en faisant confiance à votre instinct, vous contribuerez à bâtir votre résilience.
  • Gardez les choses en perspective. Même lorsque vous êtes confronté à des situations très douloureuses, essayez d’envisager les situations stressantes dans un contexte plus large et ne perdez pas de vue les perspectives à long terme. Évitez d’exagérer la situation.
  • Gardez espoir. Une perspective optimiste vous permet de prévoir que la vie vous réserve de bons résultats. Essayez de visualiser ce que vous vous souhaitez au lieu de vous préoccuper de ce qui vous fait peur.
  • Prenez soin de vous. Portez attention à vos propres besoins et sentiments. Participez à des activités qui vous font plaisir et que vous trouvez relaxantes. Faites régulièrement de l’exercice physique. En prenant soin de vous-même, vous contribuerez à garder votre esprit et votre corps prêts à faire face à des situations qui exigent de la résilience.
  • D’autres façons pour renforcer la résilience peuvent s’avérer utiles. Par exemple, certaines personnes écrivent leurs pensées et leurs sentiments les plus profonds liés à un traumatisme ou à d’autres situations stressantes dans leur vie. La méditation et les pratiques spirituelles aident certaines personnes à établir des liens et à retrouver l’espoir.
L’essentiel est de trouver des façons qui sont susceptibles de fonctionner pour vous dans le cadre de votre stratégie personnelle pour favoriser la résilience.

Tirer des leçons du passé

Le fait de vous concentrer sur des expériences antérieures et sur des sources où vous avez jadis puisé vos forces peut vous aider à comprendre quelles stratégies pour bâtir la résilience pourraient fonctionner pour vous. En examinant les réponses aux questions suivantes à propos de vous-même et de vos réactions face aux événements difficiles que vous avez rencontrés, vous pourriez découvrir une façon vous permettant de réagir efficacement à des situations difficiles dans votre vie.

Veuillez examiner ce qui suit :

  • Quels types d’événements m’ont causé le plus de stress?
  • En général, de quelle façon ces événements m’ont-ils touché?
  • Est-ce que le fait d’avoir pensé à des personnes importantes dans ma vie m’a aidé lorsque j’étais affligé?
  • À qui ai-je demandé de l’aide lorsque je suis passé par des expériences traumatisantes et stressantes?
  • Qu’est-ce que j’ai appris sur moi-même et mes interactions avec les autres dans les moments difficiles?
  • A-t-il été constructif pour moi d’aider une autre personne à vivre une expérience semblable?
  • Ai-je été en mesure de surmonter les obstacles et, le cas échéant, de quelle façon suis-je parvenu à les surmonter?
  • Qu’est-ce qui m’a aidé à accroître ma confiance en l’avenir?

Demeurer souple

La résilience comporte le maintien d’une certaine souplesse et d’un équilibre dans votre vie à mesure que vous faites face à des situations stressantes et traumatisantes. Il est possible d’y parvenir de plusieurs façons, y compris les suivantes :

  • En vous accordant la permission de revivre des émotions intenses et également en comprenant à quel moment vous devriez éviter de les revivre afin de demeurer fonctionnel.
  • En faisant des progrès et en prenant des mesures afin de résoudre vos problèmes et de répondre aux exigences de la vie quotidienne, ainsi qu’en prenant du recul afin de vous reposer et reprendre des forces.
  • En passant du temps avec vos proches afin d’obtenir du soutien et de l’encouragement ainsi que pour prendre soin de vous.
  • En comptant sur les autres et également sur vous-même.

Remerciements 

L’APA exprime sa reconnaissance aux suivants qui ont contribué à la réalisation de la présente publication :

Lillian Comas-Diaz, Ph. D., directrice, Transcultural Mental Health Institute, Washington, D.C.;

Suniya S. Luthar, Ph. D., Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, État de New York;

Salvatore R. Maddi, Ph. D., The Hardiness Institute, Inc., University of California à Irvine, Newport Beach, Californie.

H. Katherine (Kit) O’Neill, Ph. D., North Dakota State University et Knowlton School, O’Neill and Associates, Fargo, Dakota du Nord;

Karen W. Saakvitne, Ph. D., Traumatic Stress Institute et Center for Adult and Adolescent Psychotherapy, South Windsor, État du Connecticut;

Richard Glenn Tedeschi, Ph. D., département de psychologie, University of North Carolina à Charlotte.

American Psychological Association (APA)

L’APA, qui se trouve à Washington, D.C., est un organisme professionnel et scientifique de premier plan représentant le domaine de la psychologie aux États-Unis. L’APA travaille à faire progresser la psychologie en tant que science et profession ainsi que comme moyen de promouvoir la santé et le bien-être de l’humanité.

 

Featured Infographic on Best Practices for Virtual Teams

With thanks to Dr. Robin Yap, LLB, MSc, DM, Fellow


 


 
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